Economic Development and the
Tufts University - Fletcher School of Law and
Instructor: Harris, Jonathan
Year taught: 1996
Instructor's Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
note that the copyright for this syllabus is retained by the
Course Description: This course deals examines linkages between
economic development and the environment. Some familiarity with environmental
economics is assumed. The textbook used (Pearce and Warford) covers most basic
issues in environment and development, emphasizing applied theory rather than
formal mathematical analysis. We will use the text as a starting point for
discussion of issues in sustainable development. The supplementary texts (A
Survey of Ecological Economics and Green Markets) provide interpretations of the
concept of sustainable development from ecological and neoclassical
perspectives. Extensive readings on specific issues are provided in the
supplementary text Making Development Sustainable and other readings available
at the bookstore or on reserve.
Requirements for the course include two
take-home exams and a topic paper of moderate length. The topic should be
selected early in the semester.
Pearce, David W. and Jeremy J. Warford. World Without End:
Economics, Environment, and Sustainable Development. Oxford University Press,
Holmberg, Johan, ed. Making Development Sustainable: Redefining
Institutions, Policy, and Economics. Island Press, 1992.
Rajaram, Jonathan M. Harris, and Neva R. Goodwin, eds. A Survey of Ecological
Economics. Island Press, 1995.
Panayotou, Theodore. Green Markets: The
Economics of Sustainable Development. Institute for Contemporary Studies Press,
Brown, Lester R. State of the World 1995.
(Worldwatch Institute), W.W. Norton, 1995.
Goodland, Robert, Herman Daly
et al., eds. Population, Technology, and Lifestyle: The Transition to
Sustainability. Island Press, 1992.
Hanley, Nick and Clive L. Spash.
Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment. Edward Elgar, 1993.
Laurie Ann, ed. Beyond the Numbers: A Reader on Population, Consumption, and the
Environment. Island Press, 1994.
World Bank. World Development Report
1992: Development and the Environment. Oxford University Press,
Zaelke, Durwood, Paul Orbuch, and Robert F. Housman eds. Trade and
the Environment: Law, Economics, and Policy. Island Press, 1993.
Supplementary Readings are denoted with an asterisk.
TOPIC 1: Overview: Approaches to
Environment and Development
Pearce and Warford, Chapters 1 and
Holmberg, Chapter 1.
Panayotou, Chapter 1.
Krishnan et al., *Part I,
* State of the World 1995, Chapter 1: "Nature's Limits."
Goodland ed., Chapters 1 and 2.
* World Development Report 1992, Overview,
* Daly, Herman E. "Elements of Environmental Macroeconomics,"
Chapter 3 in Robert Costanza, ed., Ecological Economics. Columbia University
* Meadows, Donella H. Beyond the Limits. Chelsea Green, 1992,
TOPIC 2: National Income and Environmental
Pearce and Warford, Chapter 4.
Krishnan et al, Part V.
Goodland ed., Chapters 3, 4, 5 by Haavelmo & Hansen, Tinbergen &
Hueting, El Serafy.
* Lutz, Ernst. Towards Improved Accounting for the
Environment, Chapters 1 and 2. UNSTAT/World Bank 1993.
* Meyer, Carrie A.
Environmental and Resource Accounting: Where to Begin? World Resources
* Repetto, Robert R. Wasting Assets: Natural Resources in
the National Income Accounts. World Resources Institute, 1989.
Robert R. and Wilfredo Cruz, The Environmental Effects of Stabilization and
Structural Adjustment Programs: The Philippines Case. WRI, 1992.
* Sol Arzano
et al., Accounts Overdue: Natural Resource Depreciation in Costa Rica. WRI,
* Costanza, Robert ed., Ecological Economics, Chapters 12, 13 and
* World Resources Institute, World Resources 1990-91, Chapter 14.
United Nations. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting.= U.N.,
* United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report 1992,
* El Serafy, Salah. Country Macroeconomic Work and Natural
Resources. World Bank Environment Department Working Paper No. 58, March
TOPIC 3: Issues in Resource and Environmental
Pearce and Warford, Chapters 3, 5, 7, and 8.
2, 3, 4.
Goodland ed., Chapters 6 and 8.
Krishnan et al, Part III.
Hanley, Nick and Clive Spash, Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment, Chapter
* World Development Report 1992, Chapter 3: "Markets, Government and
* Repetto, Robert et al. Green Fees: How a Tax Shift can
Work for the Environment and the Economy. World Resources Institute, 1992.
Norgaard, Richard B. and Richard B. Howarth, "Sustainability and Discounting the
Future," in Costanza ed., Ecological Economics.
* Resources for the Future,
"How Useful is Environmental Economics?", Resources, Spring 1993.
Edward B. Economics, Natural Resource Scarcity, and Development, Chapter 3, 4,
5. Earthscan Publications, 1989.
* Jacobs, Michael. The Green Economy. Pluto
Press, 1991. Chapters 17 and 18.
TOPIC 4: Population and
Pearce and Warford, Chapters 6 and 11.
Population/Environment Equations: Implications for Future Security.
International Consortium for the Study of Environmental Security, 1994.
* Mazur, Beyond the Numbers, Sections I and II.
Resources Institute, World Resources 1994-95, Chapter 2: "Population and the
* World Development Report 1992, Chapter 1.
Frances Moore and Rachel Schurman. Taking Population Seriously. Institute for
Food and Development Policy, 1990.
* Repetto, Robert. Population, Resources,
Environment: An Uncertain Future (Population Reference Bureau, 1991).
Wolfgang. The Future of World Population. Population Reference Bureau,
* Simon, Julian L. Theory of Population and Economic Growth. Blackwell,
* Birdsall, Nancy, "Economic Analysis of Rapid Population Growth," World
Bank Research Observer, January 4 1989, pp. 23-50.
* Kelly, Allen C.
"Economic Consequences of Population Change in the Third World," Journal of
Economic Literature 26 (December 1988), pp. 1685-1728.
Food and Agriculture
Holmberg, Chapter 4.
Harris, Jonathan M. "World
Agricultural Future: Regional Sustainability and Ecological Limits." Ecological
Economics Vol. 17 No. 2 (May 1996).
* Islam, Nurul. Population and Food in
the Early Twenty-First Century: Meeting Food Demand of an Increasing Population.
International Food Policy Research Institute, 1995.
* Brown, Lester and
Hal Kane Full House: Reassessing the Earth's Population Carrying Capacity. W.W.
* Brown, Lester. Who Will Feed China? W.W. Norton, 1995.
World Resources Institute, World Resources 1994-95, Chapter 6: "Food and
* World Development Report 1992, Chapter 7: "Rural
* Alexandratos, Nikos. World Agriculture: Towards
2010. An FAO Study. Wiley, 1995.
* Cassman, K.G. and R.R. Harwood. "The
Nature of Agricultural Systems: Food Security and Environmental Balance." Food
Policy Vol 20 No. 5, pp; 439-454 (1995).
* Hanley and Spash, Cost-Benefit
Analysis and the Environment, Chapters 10 and 11.
* Dapice, David. Thinking
About the Future: The Complementary Roles of Economists and Environmentalists.
G-DAE discussion paper, 1993.
* Leonard, H. Jeffrey et al., Environment and
the Poor: Development Strategies for a Common Agenda, Chapters 1,2, and 4 by
Yudelman, Stryker, and De Boer.
* Harris, Jonathan M. World Agriculture and
the Environment. Garland Publishing, 1990.
* Conway, Gordon R. and Edward B.
Barbier. After the Green Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture for Development.
Earthscan Publications, 1990.
* Cleveland, Cutler J. "Reallocating Work
Between Human and Natural Capital in Agriculture" in Jannson et al. eds.,
Investing in Natural Capital. Island Press, 1994.
* Gever et al. Beyond Oil:
The Threat to Food and Fuel in the Coming Decades, Chapter 5: "Agriculture: The
Exhaustible Cornucopia". University Press of Colorado, 1991.
* "The Decline
of Diversity in European Agriculture," The Ecologist, Vol 2, No. 2, March/April
TOPIC 6: Energy and Industrial Development
al, Part IV.
Holmberg, Chapter 9.
* World Development Report 1992, Chapter
6: "Energy and Industry".
* State of the World 1995, Chapter 4: "Harnessing
the Sun and the Wind"
* State of the World 1994, Chapter 4: "Reshaping the
* State of the World 1993, Chapter 6: "Energy in Developing
* World Resources Institute, World Resources 1994-95, Chapter 9:
* Cleveland, Cutler. "Natural Resource Scarcity and Economic Growth
Revisited: Economic and Biophysical Perspectives," Chapter 19 in Costanza ed.,
* Gever et al. Beyond Oil: The Threat to Food and Fuel
in the Coming Decades, Chs 1-3.
* Hubbard, Harold. "The Real Cost of Energy,"
Scientific American, April 1991.
* Davis, Ged. "Energy for Planet Earth,"
Scientific American, September 1990.
TOPIC 7: Global Warming and
Pearce and Warford, Chapter 14
* World Development Report
1992, Chapter 8
* Cline, William R. The Economics of Global Warming.
Institute for International Economics, 1992.
* Nordhaus, William D. "To Slow
or Not to Slow: Economics of the Greenhouse Effect," The Economic Journal 101:6
pp. 920-37 (1991).
* "Symposium on Climate Change": articles by William
Nordhaus, James Poterba and others. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Fall
* Manne, Alan S. and Richard G. Richels. Buying Greenhouse Insurance:
The Economic Costs of CO2 Emission Limits. MIT Press, 1992.
Donella H. Beyond the Limits, Chapter 5.
* Socolow, R. et al, Industrial
Ecology and Global Change, Part 2. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
and Spash, Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment, Chapter
TOPIC 8: Natural Resource Management
Pearce and Warford,
Holmberg, Chapters 3, 7 and 8.
* World Development Report
1992, Chapters 2 and 5.
* State of the World 1995, Chapters 2 and 3:
"Fisheries", "Mountain Environments".
* State of the World 1994, Chapters 2
and 3: "Forest Economy", "Oceans".
* Hall, Charles A.S. "Sanctioning Resource
Depletion: Economic Development and Neo-Classical Economics," The Ecologist Vol.
20 #3, May/June 1990.
* World Resources Institute, World Resources 1994-95,
Chapters 7, 8, and 10.: "Forests and Rangeland", "Biodiversity", "Water".
Hanley and Spash, Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Environment, Chapter 12.
Goodland, Robert, et al. "Tropical Moist Forest Management; The Urgency of
Transition to Sustainability," Chapter 32 in Costanza ed., Ecological
* Leonard, H. Jeffrey et al., Environment and the Poor:
Development Strategies for a Common Agenda, Chapters 3, 4, & 6.
Barbier, Edward B. Economics, Natural Resource Scarcity and Development,
Chapters 6 and 7, "Deforestation in Amazonia", and "Upper Watershed Degradation
* Clark, William C. "Managing Planet Earth," Scientific American
Vol 261 No. 3, Sept 1989.
* Kurien, John. "Ruining the Commons: Overfishing
in South India," The Ecologist, Vol 23 No. 1, January/February 1993.
Schramm, Gunter and Jeremy J. Warford, eds. Environmental Management and
Economic Development, Chapters 7-11.
TOPIC 9: Trade, Financing,
and Institutional Reform
Pearce and Warford, Chapters 9, 12, and
Goodland ed., Chapters 7, 9 and 10.
Krishnan et al., Parts VI and
Holmberg, Chapters 2, 10, and 11.
Panayotou, Chapters 5 and
Costanza, Robert et al. "Sustainable Trade: A New Paradigm for World
Welfare," Environment 37:5, June 1995.
Harris, Jonathan M. "Free Trade and
Environmental Sustainability: An Ecologica Economics Perspective," Praxis Vol. X
No. 2, Summer 1993.
* Zaelke, Orbuch, and Housman. Trade and the Environment:
Law, Economics and Policy. Island Press, 1993. Chapters 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 13, 14,
* World Development Report 1992, Chapters 4, 8 and 9.
* State of
the World 1995, Chapter 10.
* State of the World 1994, Chapter 9.
of the World 1993, Chapter 9.
* Reid, Walter V. et al eds. Bankrolling
Successes: A Portfolio of Sustainable Development Projects. (Environmental
Policy Institute, 1988).
* Reed, David ed. Structural Adjustment and the
Environment, Chapters 1 and 2.
* Rich, Bruce. Mortgaging the Earth: The World
Bank, Environmental Impoverishment, and the Crisis of Development. Beacon Press,
* U.N. Development Program, Human Development Report 1992, Chapters
* U.N. Development Program, Human Development Report 1993, 1994.
Barbier, Economics, Natural-Resource Scarcity, and Development, Chapter 8.
Harris, Jonathan M. "Global Institutions and Sustainable Development," in Dietz
et al. eds., Sustainability and Environmental Policy. Berlin, Edition Sigma,
TOPIC 10: Consumption, Recycling, and Industrial Ecology
[Guest Lecturer Dr. Frank Ackerman, Senior Research Associate,
Krishnan et al. Part IV, readings by Hannon, Ayres, Duchin, Graedel,
Holmberg, Chapters 5 and 6.
Ackerman, Frank, Why Do We Recycle? Selected
* Socolow, R. et al, Industrial Ecology and Global Change.
Cambridge University Press, 1994. Parts 1 and 4.
* Carr, Marilyn.
Sustainable Industrial Development: Seven Case Studies. Intermediate Technology