A Semester-Long Project in CS 2

Christine Shannon

Centre College

Danville, KY. 40422 USA



Two years ago, like many others, our Computer Science program made the switch from Pascal to C++.  As we had in the past,  we continued the practice of teaching some principles of software engineering in the second course.  However, object oriented design was more complex than the top down design we had taught before and I was disappointed with the level of expertise that students had achieved at the end of the course.   I was convinced that this was at least partly due to the type of assignments I had given.  Many were quite modest in size and designed to make use of the current data structure we were studying.  Except for the classes provided by the authors to implement the new data structure, students frequently added only one additional class to the project and they consequently viewed the design phase as an unnecessary exercise.  I subsequently determined to construct a sequence of assignments that would be part of a much larger project through which I could illustrate not only the use of standard data structures but also the need for employing  principles of software engineering.

Major Features of the Semester Long Project:

The Problem:

The problem was based on a laboratory exercise in the text for the course, (Berman 33) and a similar problem in another text (Mercer, 596-647) which we were using in CS I.  The object was to design a library circulation system with a limited set of capabilities.

Step 1:

In the first phase of the problem students were given the following description: A library has requested a system that supports a small set of library functions: checking out books, returning books, calculating and paying fines.  A book may be checked out for 14 days and late fees are $.50 per day.  No one may borrow a new book if they already have 7 books checked out, or if they have one or more books overdue or if they have unpaid fines of $5.00 or more.

Input will be through the keyboard and output will be printed  on the screen.  Data on books and patrons will be stored in an array and all searching will be sequential.  Do not provide for any library functions other than those listed in the problem.

They were to identify the classes, their responsibilities and their collaborators.  For each class, they were to list the data to be stored and the functions to be executed.  In addition to presenting their design and descriptions to me in writing, they also had to discuss them with me in my office.  In these individual interviews, I asked questions, pointed out errors, omissions, and made suggestions and then each group was given the opportunity to make revisions before the final version was submitted.  Another technique that was useful both in my office and while they were doing design was the acting out of scenarios.  For example, I might ask, "In what order will the various classes be involved and what methods will be called when a patron wishes to check out a book?"  Several of the groups identified missing functions in this way.  Because my class was small, I was able to do all these interviews myself, but this could certainly be handled by graduate assistants in a larger setting.  I had also considered the possibility of one group presenting its design to another but worried about their lack of experience.  In summary, I wanted them to see that design was an important part of writing software and I forced them to spend time on planning in spite of the fact that they were eager to start coding.

Step 2:

Now the groups had to complete the specifications for each design.  This meant writing the header file for each class along with pre and post conditions for each method and brief descriptions for each data member. Students were warned that the specifications should be clear enough so others could do the implementation.   They were to keep a log of changes to their original designs.

Step 3:

After teams were reassigned, they were now given the task of writing to the specifications.  A library of course needs books and patrons so I provided them with a data file of patrons and a data file of books in a simple to use format.   In each design there were arrays for storing this data and they now had to write additional methods or functions to read this initializing data .  By now, we had covered linear search in the course.

The deliverables were:

All groups produced running code which met the specifications of the original problem although one project had a main() which was very long and complicated.  I anticipated that problems would soon surface.  Most test plans were too short, leaving out many test cases that could easily lead to problems but all had tested the primary functions extensively.  I saved my highest praise for the test plan which had uncovered some subtle errors.  At this point where they actually had a running program I wanted to emphasize that the test plan wants to uncover errors.

Step 4:

By now we had learned about binary search, overloaded operators and a variety of sorting procedures.  They now knew that the linear search we were currently using in our projects was not efficient.  In this phase of the project, the reconstituted teams were to sort the data after it was read.  The book and patron classes were supposed to overload operators to do this.  The search procedures were to use binary search.  Because we now knew about a variety of list classes, each instance of the patron class had an instance of a list class to store the collections of books that were checked out.

After making all these changes, each group executed  its test plan again to make sure all the results were identical and submitted them along with all the source code.  At this point the project was quite complex and the careful design was beginning to show benefits.  In fact, during this stage one of the projects had to be abandoned.  It was much more weakly structured than the others and as changes began to accumulate, the problems became obvious.  Rather than force a group to struggle to correct a project they had inherited from others, I permitted them to select a different project to continue.  It was a very good learning experience.

Step 5:

The initial description of the problem had not allowed the addition or deletion of either patrons or books because the array implementation did not allow for efficient implementation of these operations.  At this point in the course, we had covered the ADT Table, and now the projects were to be altered so that both books and patrons were maintained in hash tables.    The main menu was to be extended to allow for the addition and deletion of patrons as well as books.  These functions were to be user friendly, allowing for error correction in the input.  This time the emphasis was on testing and I required a more extensive test plan and thorough reporting on the results.

Step 6:

The final phase of the project required the use of inheritance to extend the variety of materials which were maintained by the library.  There were now books, videos and CD-ROM's, each with their own regulations for fines, and lending periods.  I provided the new data file with the extended offerings.

Course Evaluation Comments:

There were only 7 students in the class. The following are their responses when asked to comment on the value of the semester long project:


The use of classes is far better this year than it was last year.  The final projects include a large variety of classes as well as data structures.  Early in the process, students realized the importance of writing good code that was easy to maintain.  The fact that one project was aborted was a very good lesson.  Student evaluations at the end of the course were very positive. There were numerous comments about their pride in what they had accomplished. Many of these students were among those who took an introduction to software engineering course the following spring. Both the instructor and the students felt that those who had taken the new version of CS 2 were better prepared to work on the large class project. At this point the evidence is largely anecdotal and the numbers are small but student reaction was clearly positive.  Peer evaluations indicate good cooperation among the members of the teams with scheduling difficulties the major deterrent to completely smooth operations.  I definitely intend to do this again next year with a different project and perhaps trees instead of tables, but using similar increments in the development of the project

Works Cited


Berman, A. Michael.  Data Structures Via C++:  Objects by Evolution. New York: Oxford University Press. 1997.

Mercer, Rick.  Computing Fundamentals with C++:  Object Oriented Programming & Design.  2nd ed.  Wilsonville, Oregon:            Franklin, Beedle & Associates, Inc. 1999.